So, I yanked a z80 out of an old treadmill I had whose motor controller died. I found the datasheet, and here's what I know so far:

* It's a member of the z8 processor family, running at 16 mhz (not sure if that's z80, or a clone of a higher 8080 chip, then)

* It has 236 bytes of usable RAM, according to the datasheet

* It has 4kB of internal ROM, presumably for holding the code. I don't know if this is EEPROM or just mask ROM, but it has a Read/Write pin on the chip which makes me wonder.

* I'm fairly sure it has a working internal oscillator, but I can only test that by testing the oscillator output pin with a multimeter (gives half vcc)

* This CPU is the "Z86C40" in the datasheet, with the last listed pinout.

The datasheet is here but it's not exactly verbose. Mostly, it's documenting working conditions, rather than usage scenarios.

What I really want to be able to do is program it, and I'm not sure if I can do that with the internal ROM or not, since I'm not sure if it's rewritable. The implication in the datasheet is that it isn't, from what I can tell, but I can't see any way to enable external ROM reading, which it also mentions.

Any help would be appreciated.[/list]
Users manual.

The Z8 core appears to be significantly different from the Z80 (after a cursory reading, it appears to resemble other 8-bit micros such as PIC and AVR), and the -C40 appears to be OTP. Basically, I don't think you're going to get anything useful out of that device.
Well, you answered your own question by looking at the datasheet. It says that it is mask programmable and clocked at 16MHz. Also, holy hell, 236 general-purpose registers. (Also, the CPU has a built-in anti-ROM dumping feature)
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